Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system includes two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina (Fig. 1). The reproductive system is a subtle mechanism implementing a set of repeating physiological changes, i.e. a menstrual cycle. Regular menstrual cycle is vital for the woman’s ability to conceive.

Fig. 1. Female reproductive organs.

Female reproductive organs

  1. Uterus
  2. Fallopian Tube
  3. Uterus Cervix
  4. External Orifice of Uterus
  5. Ovary
  6. Vagina


The primary process of menstrual cycle is maturation of an eg (oocyte) which can be fertilized. At the same time the inner uterus layer (endometrium) is getting prepared for reception of the fertilized oocyte (implantation). The flow of this process is regulated by hormones.


In the beginning of menstrual cycle the glands located in female brain discharge into blood the hormones which stimulate the oocyte maturation in the ovary> and ovulation. These hormones are usually called after their functions, their names coming from Latin or Greek and usually used in abbreviated form.

The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones produced in the brain.

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GRH) plays a key role in hormone regulation of the menstrual cycle. It stimulates the discharge of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the brain area, called hypophysis. Both hormones influence the ovaries via blood. The conception is possible only if the processes sequence is accurate.

“Three times I went to Russia to pick up some eggs. Six embryos tested by PGS and one was good ))) This little embryo was born when I was 44 and the egg they used was from me when I was 43…”


"...If I would have known at the start, what I know now, I would not have done my IVF-attempts at my age as egg donation gave us result straight away. It was the best decision of our lives!"

Karin and Pedro, Sweden

“…I am a single woman and when one is lonely, one is very sensitive…You saw me as a person and I felt that you can help me…”



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A blog by Tone Bråten

A blog — to help you on your journey to become parents!

Our patients tell their stories

  • Willeke and Mario from Netherlands come to AVA-Peter for egg donation treatment… Enjoy this touching and sincere documentary by Jorien van Nes